• Dimas Mulia Universitas Brawijaya
  • Ive Emaliana Brawijaya University




learning strategies, learning engagement, team-based, self-regulated, gamification


Amid Covid-19 pandemic, emergency remote teaching has been done through online learning. Recent research has found some challenges and opportunities, including the debate analyzing the effectiveness of EFL online teaching and learning processes. However, little is known about the types of learning strategies that suit students' engagement with online learning. The investigation between them illustrates an emerging paradigm for English learning in an online setting, where learning takes place in authentic environments with immersive experiences in order to achieve meaningful learning. This early examination reveals assessments on their natures and applications in connection to English success with the goal of distributing such a revolutionary arena. The findings are revealed in the conclusions in the form of model hypothesis of causal relationship may accordingly help other researchers to conduct further research in exploring the prediction of learning strategies provided in this paper when dealing with enhancing EFL teaching method during this emergency remote teaching and learning


Download data is not yet available.


Aguiar-Castillo, L., Clavijo-Rodriguez, A., Hernández-López, L., De Saa-Pérez, P., & Pérez-Jiménez, R. (2020). Gamification and deep learning approaches in higher education. Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Education, xxxx. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhlste.2020.100290

Allam, S. N. S., Hassan, M. S., Mohideen, R. S., Ramlan, A. F., & Kamal, R. M. (2020). Online distance learning readiness during covid-19 outbreak among undergraduate students. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 10(5). https://doi.org/10.6007/ijarbss/v10-i5/7236

Alrashidi, O., Phan, H. P., & Ngu, B. H. (2016). Academic engagement: An overview of its definitions, dimensions, and major conceptualisations. International Education Studies, 9(12), 41. https://doi.org/10.5539/ies.v9n12p41

Aucejo, E. M., French, J., Ugalde Araya, M. P., & Zafar, B. (2020). The impact of COVID-19 on student experiences and expectations: Evidence from a survey. Journal of Public Economics, 191, 104271. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpubeco.2020.104271

Barak, Miri. Usher, M. (2020). Innovation in a MOOC: Project-based learning in the international context. Active Learning in College Students, 2(1), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-33600-4_39

Barak, M., & Usher, M. (2019). The innovation profile of nanotechnology team projects of face-to-face and online learners. Computers and Education, 137(September 2018), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2019.03.012

Barak, M., Watted, A., & Haick, H. (2020). Establishing the validity and reliability of a modified tool for assessing innovative thinking of engineering students. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 45(2), 212–223. https://doi.org/10.1080/02602938.2019.1620680

Broadbent, J. (2016). Academic success is about self-efficacy rather than frequency of use of the learning management system. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 32(4), 38–49. https://doi.org/10.14742/ajet.2634

Broadbent, J., Sharman, S., Panadero, E., & Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, M. (2021). How does self-regulated learning influence formative assessment and summative grade? Comparing online and blended learners. Internet and Higher Education, 50(March), 100805. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2021.100805

Cechella, F., Abbad, G., & Wagner, R. (2021). Leveraging learning with gamification: An experimental case study with bank managers. Computers in Human Behavior Reports, 3(December 2020), 100044. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chbr.2020.100044

ChanLin, L. J., & Chan, K. C. (2010). Group learning strategies for online course. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2(2), 397–401. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.03.033

Chatalalsingh, C., & Reeves, S. (2014). Leading team learning: What makes interprofessional teams learn to work well. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 28(6), 513–518. https://doi.org/10.3109/13561820.2014.900001

Cheng, S. L., & Xie, K. (2021). Why college students procrastinate in online courses: A self-regulated learning perspective. Internet and Higher Education, 50(April), 100807. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2021.100807

Chizmar, J. F., & Walbert, M. S. (1999). Web-based learning environments guided by principles of good teaching practice. Journal of Economic Education, 30(3), 248–259. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220489909595985

Chung, E., Subramaniam, G., & Dass, L. C. (2020). ERIC - EJ1267359 - Online learning readiness among university students in Malaysia amidst COVID-19, Asian Journal of University Education, 2020-Jul. Asian Journal of University Education (AJUE), 19, 46–58. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1267359

Deterding, S., Dixon, D., Khaled, R., & Nacke, L. (2011). From game design elements to gamefulness: Defining “gamification.” Proceedings of the 15th International Academic MindTrek Conference: Envisioning Future Media Environments, MindTrek 2011, September, 9–15. https://doi.org/10.1145/2181037.2181040

Dichev, C., & Dicheva, D. (2017). Gamifying education: What is known, what is believed and what remains uncertain: a critical review. In International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education (Vol. 14, Issue 1). International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41239-017-0042-5

Dörrenbächer, L., & Perels, F. (2016). Self-regulated learning profiles in college students: Their relationship to achievement, personality, and the effectiveness of an intervention to foster self-regulated learning. Learning and Individual Differences, 51, 229–241. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2016.09.015

Emke, A. R., Butler, A. C., & Larsen, D. P. (2016). Effects of team-based learning on short-term and long-term retention of factual knowledge. Medical Teacher, 38(3), 306–311. https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159X.2015.1034663

Fredricks, J. A., Blumenfeld, P. C., & Paris, A. H. (2004). School engagement potential of the concept. Review of Educational Research, 74(1), 59–109.

Greetham, M., & Ippolito, K. (2018). Instilling collaborative and reflective practice in engineers: Using a team-based learning strategy to prepare students for working in project teams. Higher Education Pedagogies, 3(1), 510–521. https://doi.org/10.1080/23752696.2018.1468224

Hamari, J. (2013). Transforming homo economicus into homo ludens: A field experiment on gamification in a utilitarian peer-to-peer trading service. Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, 12(4), 236–245. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.elerap.2013.01.004

Hendry, G., Wiggins, S., & Anderson, T. (2016). The discursive construction of group cohesion in problem-based learning tutorials. Psychology Learning and Teaching, 15(2), 180–194. https://doi.org/10.1177/1475725716643267

Hung, M. L., Chou, C., Chen, C. H., & Own, Z. Y. (2010). Learner readiness for online learning: Scale development and student perceptions. Computers and Education, 55(3), 1080–1090. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2010.05.004

Huotari, K., & Hamari, J. (2017). A definition for gamification: Anchoring gamification in the service marketing literature. Electronic Markets, 27(1), 21–31. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12525-015-0212-z

Järvelä, S., & Renninger, K. A. (2014). Designing for learning: Interest, motivation, and engagement. The Cambridge Handbook of the Learning Sciences, Second Edition, 668–685. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139519526.040

Karpouzis, K., Caridakis, G., Fotinea, S. E., & Efthimiou, E. (2007). Educational resources and implementation of a Greek sign language synthesis architecture. Computers and Education, 49(1), 54–74. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2005.06.004

Knowles, M. (1975). Individual Schools , Stating Learning Objectives Is the Clearest ,. 256–257.

Koivisto, J., & Hamari, J. (2019). The rise of motivational information systems: A review of gamification research. International Journal of Information Management, 45(July 2018), 191–210. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2018.10.013

Kulkarni, C., Cambre, J., Kotturi, Y., Bernstein, M. S., & Klemmer, S. (2015). Talkabout: Making distance matter with small groups in massive classes. CSCW 2015 - Proceedings of the 2015 ACM International Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing, 1116–1128. https://doi.org/10.1145/2675133.2675166

Kwon, K., Liu, Y. H., & Johnson, L. P. (2014). Group regulation and social-emotional interactions observed in computer supported collaborative learning: Comparison between good vs. poor collaborators. Computers and Education, 78, 185–200. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2014.06.004

Lee, J. (2020). Mental health effects of school closures during COVID-19. The Lancet Child and Adolescent Health, 4(6), 421. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2352-4642(20)30109-7

Legaki, N. Z., Xi, N., Hamari, J., Karpouzis, K., & Assimakopoulos, V. (2020). The effect of challenge-based gamification on learning: An experiment in the context of statistics education. International Journal of Human Computer Studies, 144(November 2019). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhcs.2020.102496

Majuri, J., Koivisto, J., & Hamari, J. (2018). Gamification of education and learning: A review of empirical literature. CEUR Workshop Proceedings, 2186(May), 11–19.

Musingafi, M. C. C., Mapuranga, B., Chiwanza, K., & Zebron, S. (2015). Challenges for open and distance learning (ODL) students: Experiences from students of the

Zimbabwe Open University. Journal of Education and Practice, 6(18), 59–66.

Parker, H., & du Plooy, E. (2021). Team-based games: Catalysts for developing psychological safety, learning and performance. Journal of Business Research, 125(December 2020), 45–51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2020.12.010

Pitzer, E. A. S. and J. R. (2012). Developmental dynamics of student engagement, coping, and everyday resilience. Handbook of Research on Student Engagement, 1–840. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-2018-7

Poole, D. M. (2000). Student participation in a discussion-oriented online course: A case study. Journal of Research on Computing in Education, 33(2), 162–177. https://doi.org/10.1080/08886504.2000.10782307

Reeve, J., & Tseng, C. M. (2011). Agency as a fourth aspect of students’ engagement during learning activities. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 36(4), 257–267. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2011.05.002

Salanova, M., Schaufeli, W., Martínez, I., & Bresó, E. (2009). How obstacles and facilitators predict academic performance: The mediating role of study burnout and engagement. Anxiety, Stress and Coping, 23(1), 53–70. https://doi.org/10.1080/10615800802609965

Salmela-Aro, K., & Read, S. (2017). Study engagement and burnout profiles among Finnish higher education students. Burnout Research, 7, 21–28. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.burn.2017.11.001

Seaborn, K., & Fels, D. I. (2015). Gamification in theory and action: A survey. International Journal of Human Computer Studies, 74, 14–31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhcs.2014.09.006

Shawaqfeh, M. S., Al Bekairy, A. M., Al-Azayzih, A., Alkatheri, A. A., Qandil, A. M., Obaidat, A. A., Al Harbi, S., & Muflih, S. M. (2020). Pharmacy students perceptions of their distance online learning experience during the covid-19 pandemic: A cross-sectional survey study. Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development, 7, 238212052096303. https://doi.org/10.1177/2382120520963039

Stansfield, M., Mclellan, E., & Connolly, T. (2004). Enhancing student performance in online learning and traditional face-to-face class delivery. Journal of Information Technology Education: Research, 3, 173–188. https://doi.org/10.28945/296

Tekkol, I. A., & Demirel, M. (2018). An investigation of self-directed learning skills of undergraduate students. Frontiers in Psychology, 9(NOV), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02324

Tseng, H. W., & Yeh, H. Te. (2013). Team members’ perceptions of online teamwork learning experiences and building teamwork trust: A qualitative study. Computers and Education, 63, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2012.11.013

Usher, M., & Barak, M. (2018). Peer assessment in a project-based engineering course: comparing between on-campus and online learning environments. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 43(5), 745–759. https://doi.org/10.1080/02602938.2017.1405238

Wadsworth, L. (2019). Reading Intervention: Correlation Between Emotional Intelligence and Reading Competence in High School Students. Revista de Psicodidáctica (English Ed.), 24(1), 24–30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psicoe.2018.10.001

Wang, L. Y. K., Lew, S. L., Lau, S. H., & Leow, M. C. (2019). Usability factors predicting continuance of intention to use cloud e-learning application. Heliyon, 5(6), e01788. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e01788

Watted, A., & Barak, M. (2018). Motivating factors of MOOC completers: Comparing between university-affiliated students and general participants. Internet and Higher Education, 37(June 2017), 11–20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2017.12.001

Zhu, M., Sari, A., & Lee, M. M. (2018). A systematic review of research methods and topics of the empirical MOOC literature (2014–2016). Internet and Higher Education, 37(September 2017), 31–39. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2018.01.002




How to Cite

Mulia, D., & Emaliana, I. . (2021). EXPLORING EFL STUDENTS’ LEARNING STRATEGIES AND THEIR ONLINE LEARNING ENGAGEMENTS AMID COVID-19 PANDEMIC. ELTR Journal, 5(2), 130-142. https://doi.org/10.37147/eltr.v5i2.122