• Anastasia Nelladia Cendra Widya Mandala Surabaya Catholic University
  • Eric Sulindra Widya Mandala Surabaya Catholic University



Bloom’s taxonomy, discussion forum, e-learning, pandemic


To response the spread of Covid-19, almost all offline education institutes are shut down and e-learning is conducted almost abruptly, including in a Business English writing class for university students. The discussion forum in the LMS ‘Moodle’ is used a lot to help the discussion of this class alive. To widen the knowledge of the use of discussion forum, especially during an emergency time like this Covid-19 pandemic, this qualitative descriptive qualitative research aims to explore how discussion forum is used in the LMS ‘Moodle’ for university students in e-learning during a pandemic, especially concerning optimization of the questions, the arrangement of the topics of discussion, and the assignments. By analyzing the patterns of how the discussion forum is used and interviewing the students, this research found that what determines the student's response to the discussion in the forum is the question words and the key words in the discussion sentences in the forum. These two things will determine students’ answers in terms of the key words used by students, the length and shortness of student answers, and the type and depth of student answers, which in turn show how students interact in the discussion forum.


Download data is not yet available.


Alka, W., & Umamah, A. (2020). Utilizing Edmodo in writing class: Why and how? Acitya: Journal of Teaching & Education, 2(1), 71–81.

Anderson, L. W., Krathwohl, D. R., Airasian, P. W., Cruikshank, K. A., Mayer, R. E., Pintrich, P. R., … Wittrock, E. C. (2001). A taxonomy for learning teaching and assessing: A revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy of educational objectives. New York: Addison Wesley Longman, Inc.

Anthony, B. A. (2007). Making students’ writing bloom: The effect of scaffolding inquiry using Bloom’s Taxonomy on writing in response to reading and reading comprehension of fifth graders. Auburn University.

Ary, D., Jacobs, L. C., Sorensen, C., & Razavieh, A. (2010). Introduction to research in education (8th ed.). Belmont: Wadsworth.

Berge, Z. L., & Muilenburg, L. (2002). Designing discussion questions for online, adult Leqrning. In A. Rossett (Ed.), The ASTD e-Learning Handbook: Best practices, strategies, and case studies for an emerging field (pp. 183–190). New York: McGraw Hill.

Bloom, B. S., Engelhart, M. D., Furst, E. J., Hill, W. H., & Krathwohl, D. R. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives: The classification of educational goals, Handbook 1: Cognitive Domain (B. S. Bloom, Ed.). London: David McKay Com- pany, Inc.

Bozkurt, A., & Sharma, R. C. (2020). Emergency remote teaching in a time of global crisis due to CoronaVirus pandemic. Asian Journal of Distance Education, 15(1), 1–6.

Brandl, K. (2005). Are you ready to “Moodle”? Language Learning & Technology, 9(2), 16–23.

Bye, L., Smith, S., & Rallis, H. M. (2009). Reflection using an online discussion forum: Impact on student learning and satisfaction. Social Work Education: The International Journal, 28(8), 841–855.

Craig, G. P. (2015). Evaluating discussion forums for undergraduate and graduate dtudents (pp. 1–3). pp. 1–3. Retrieved from

Creswell, J. W. (2007). Qualitative inquiry and reseach design: Choosing among five approaches (2nd ed.).

Dobao, A. F. (2015). Review: Collaborative writing in L2 classrooms. ELT Journal Advance Access, 1–3.

Dooga, J. T. (2010). A discourse analysis of a forum discussion in Moodle. Proceedings of AICTTRA, 43–54.

Ekahitanond, V. (2013). Promoting university students’ critical thinking skills through peer feedback activity in an online discussion forum. 59(2), 247–265.

Emmel, N. (2013). Sampling and choosing cases in qualitative research: A realist approach. London: Sage Publications.

Ertmer, P. A., Sadaf, A., & Ertmer, D. J. (2011). Student-content interactions in online courses: The role of question prompts in facilitating higher-level engagement with course content. Journal of Computing in Higher Education, Vol. 23, pp. 157–186.

Farias, F., Sales, G., & Gonçalves, A. (2017). Analyses of the flipped classroom application in discussion forum on LMS moodle (pp. 690–700). pp. 690–700.

Frager, A. M. (1979). Questioning strategies: implications for teacher training.

Gilbert, P. K., & Dabbagh, N. (2005). How to structure online discussions for meaningful discourse: A case study. British Journal of Educational Technology, 36(1), 5–18.

Griffin, J., & Minter, D. (2013). The rise of the online writing classroom: Reflecting on the material conditions of college composition teaching. National Council of Teachers of English, 65(1), 140–161. Retrieved from

Gul, R., Kanwal, S., & Khan, S. S. (2020). Preferences of the teachers in employing revised Blooms taxonomy in their instructions. 3(2), 258–266.

Hu, Q., Huang, Y., & Deng, L. (2018). A method for analysis of online discussion forum in Moodle. The 13th International Conference on Computer Science & Education (ICCSE), 548–551. IEEE.

Hussin, S., & Kebangsaan, U. (2008). Creating a bigger Z.P.D. for ESL learners via online forum in Malaysia. College Teaching Methods & Styles Joiurnal, 4(11), 1–10.

Ismail, N., Singh, D. S. R., & Abu, R. (2013). Fostering learner autonomy and academic writing Interest via the use of structured e-forum

activities among ESL students. Proceedings of EDULEARN13 Conference.

Jones, K. O., Harland, J., & Bartlett, R. (2009). Relationship between examination questions and Bloom’s Taxonomy. Frontiers in Education Conference, (November).

Kin, C., Paré, D. E., Collimore, L., & Joordens, S. (2011). Assessing the effectiveness of a voluntary online discussion forum on improving students ’ course performance. Computers & Education, 56(1), 253–261.

Kisaka, S. T. (2017). Peer critique using the discussion forum: A case of two honours students. International Journal of Educational Sciences, 19(1), 42–53.

Kraus-Srebric, E., Brakus, L., & Kentric, D. (1981). A six-tier cake: An experiment with self-selected learning tasks. ELT Journal, 36(1), 19–23.

Lajis, A., Nasir, H. M., & Aziz, N. A. (2018). Proposed assessment framework based on Bloom Taxonomy cognitive competency: Introduction to programming. 7th International Conference on Software and Computer Applications, 97–101.

Li, L. (2016). Integrating thinking skills in foreign language learning: What can we learn from teachers’ perspectives? Thinking Skills and Creativity.

Liu, E. Z.-F., Cheng, S.-S., & Lin, C. H. (2013). The effects of using Online Q&A discussion forums with different characteristics as a learning resource. The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 22.

Mabrito, M. (2010). A Study of Synchronous Versus Asynchronous Collaboration in an Online Business Writing Class. American Journal of Distance Education, 20(2), 93–107.

Meyer, K. A. (2004). Evaluating online discussions: four different frames of analysis. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Network, 8(2), 101–114.

Milman, N. B. (2014). Crafting the “right” online discussion questions using the revised Bloom’s Taxonomy as a Framework. Distance Learning, 11(4), 17–20.

Mohamad, M., & Shaharuddin, S. (2014). Online forum discussion to promote sense of learning community among the group members. International Education Studies, 7(13), 61–74.

Nandi, D., Hamilton, M., & Harland, J. (2012). Evaluating the quality of interaction in asynchronous discussion forums in fully online courses. Distance Education, 33(1), 3–30.

Nashruddin, N., & Ningtyas, P. R. (2020). English as foreign language (EFL) teacher’s questioning strategies in classroom interaction. Ultimate Research and Trends in Education, 2(1), 5–11.

Nicholson, P. (2007). A history of e-learning: Echoes of the pioneers. In B. Fernández-Manjón, J. M. Sánchez-Pérez, J. A. Gómez-Pulido, M. A. Vega-Rodríguez, & M. A. Vega-Rodríguez (Eds.), Computers and Education: E-learning, From Theory to Practice (pp. 1–11). Springer.

Nurita, Anwar, K., & Ma’rifah, U. (2013). Task types in EFL listening class: Realizing learners’ prospects. 124–139.

Palenque, S. M., & DeCosta, M. (2015). Talking techne: Techniques to establish an active online discussion forum. Journal of Instructional Research, 4, 83–89.

Patton, M. Q. (2002). Qualitative research & evaluation methods (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.

Patton, M. Q. (2015). Qualitative research & evaluation methods: Integrating theory and practice (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.

Rodrigues, H., Almeida, F., Figueiredo, V., & Lopes, S. L. (2019). Tracking e-learning through published papers: A systematic review. Computers & Education, 136(March), 87–98.

Soleimani, H., & Kheiri, S. (2016). An evaluation of TEFL postgraduates’ testing classroom activities and assignments based on Bloom’ s revised taxonomy. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 6(4), 861–869.

Subandoro, P. S., & Sulindra, E. (2018). Optimizing collaborative learning: Using Google Classroom in business correspondence class. Vocatio, 2(1), 46–66.

Szabo, Z., & Schwartz, J. (2011). Learning methods for teacher education: the use of online discussions to improve critical thinking. Technology, Pedagogy and Education, 20(1), 79–94.

Szabo, Z., & Schwartz, J. (2017). Online fourm discussions: They will respond the way you ask. Journal of Psychological and Educational Research, 25(1), 130–141.

Tofade, T., Elsner, J., & Haines, S. T. (2013). Best practice strategies for effective use of questions as a teaching tool. American Journal Of Pharmaceutical Education, 77(7), 1–9.

Valverde-Berrocoso, J., Garrido-Arroyo, M. del C., Burgos-Videla, C., & Morales-Cevallos, M. B. (2020). Trends in Educational Research about e-Learning: A Systematic Literature Review. Sustainability, 12(5153).

Wang, Q., & Woo, H. L. (2007). Comparing asynchronous online discussions and face-to-face discussions in a classroom setting. British Journal of Educational Technology, 38(2), 272–286.

Wijanarko, B. D., Murad, D. F., Heryadi, Y., Toba, L. H., & Budiharto, W. (2018). Questions classification in online discussion towards Smart Learning Management System. International Conference on Information Management and Technology, (September), 251–255. IEEE.

Wilson, K. (2016). Critical reading, critical thinking: delicate scaffolding in English for academic purposes (EAP). Thinking Skills and Creativity, 22, 256–65.

Won, A. S., Bailey, J. O., & Yi, S. (2020). Work-in-progress — Learning about virtual worlds in virtual worlds?: How remote learning in a pandemic can inform future teaching. 6th International Conference of the Immersive Learning Research Network, (iLRN), 377–380. Immersive Learning Research Network.

Wulandari, M., & Pasaribu, T. A. (2020). Technology for English language learning (1st ed.; Barli Bram, Ed.). Yogyakarta: Sanata Dharma University Presss.

Yukselturk, E. (2010). An investigation of factors affecting student participation lvel in an online discussion forum. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 9(2), 24–32.

Zapalska, A. M., McCarty, M. D., Young-McLear, K., & White, J. (2018). Design of assignments using the 21st century Bloom’s revised taxonomy model for development of critical thinking skills. Problems and Perspectives in Management, 16(2), 291–305.




How to Cite